Any oscillatory, or vibratory motion, such as a plucked harp string, may be represented graphically as a sine wave. The vibration in the image occurs between limits of amplitude along the vertical axis, and progresses through time along the horizontal axis, leaving a trace of one cycle. A single photon, for instance, or a quantum of light, vibrates at a particular frequency; and according to Larson, having no means of locomotion itself, is carried along by the scalar motion of space-time in an outward direction from its point of origin, at what he called "unit velocity," or the velocity of light.
In addition to the space-time scalar motion outward, or a gravitational scalar motion inward, a vibrating entity may also have a rotational motion, in which the axis of vibration, instead of remaining constantly vertical, rotates about its center — leaving a trace similar that of a rotating sine wave: which in this case traces a vibration of 12 cycles in the course of a single rotation of 360°.
Additionally, a more complex vibrating entity, such as an atom, may have another vibration in a different dimension, such as in a plane perpendicular to that pictured in the illustration of a Rotating Sine Wave; and the atom may be rotating as well in a third dimension perpendicular to both of the other two intersecting planes.
Larson's Reciprocal System describes how everything from individual photons to groups of neighboring galaxies, including every particular element listed in the Periodic Table — without resort to impossible, ad hoc theoretical structures — is composed of richly variable combinations of motions, each one of which consists, as postulated, only of reciprocal relationships between space and time. It is an astonishing proliferation of an exquisite, endlessly filigreed, fractal "space-time-scape," spawned from two fundamental assumptions of seemingly bedrock simplicity. Yet according to Larson, the Reciprocal System is in agreement with — or at worst, is not contradicted by — any detail of "the real universe" in which we live, in any domain where human experiments or observations have been conducted. It only challenges prevailing theories about the nature of "the real universe;" and it does this in abandoned profusion, in virtually every domain of theoretical physics. But then, that is what a new and more penetrating insight, validated at innumerable points by agreement with observation, is supposed to do. Is it not?
Although the central core of massive bodies, such as Earth, and the Sun, is exactly the part of them that is not available for direct human observation or analysis, yet we may reasonably surmise that conditions in stellar and planetary cores are fundamentally unlike the conditions that prevail, for instance, at sea level on planet Earth. Pressures, temperatures, and energy levels in planetary and stellar cores are entirely off the charts of terrestrial conditions; or even, in the case of stars, at the visible surface of the Sun. As quoted above, "any contention that the extrapolated results constitute actual knowledge [of these extreme regions] is simply preposterous." Yet the extrapolated surmise of conditions in stellar cores is the basis for the belief that the source of energy for stellar ignition is a nuclear fusion reaction that produces helium from hydrogen — which is in turn the basis for the prevailing belief about the direction of Cosmic evolution.
The Reciprocal System predicts instead that the energy igniting the stars is produced by fission reactions involving heavy elements swept up gravitationally from the interstellar dust of varying density through which stellar systems pass in their galactic journeys; and that the extreme conditions in stellar cores, constantly growing more extreme under the perpetual accretion of interstellar matter, involve progressively lighter elements in these fission reactions.[33, 34]
Moreover, as noted earlier, contrary to "orthodox belief," the speed of light is not a "speed limit" in the Reciprocal Universe — or in the "real universe" in which we find ourselves. Stellar, and possibly planetary cores, develop pressures, temperatures, and energy levels capable of propelling matter to transluminary velocities — which opens another host of implications that follow directly from Larson's fundamental assumptions.
Not surprisingly, matter propelled to transluminary velocities does not behave like matter at subluminary velocities. In fact, the Reciprocal System predicts that such matter exits the space-time sector of the Reciprocal Universe, or the material sector: and enters its reciprocal, the time-space, or the cosmic sector — in which the reciprocal of the relationship between space and time in the material sector prevails. That is, within the cosmic sector, time occupies the function of space within the material sector; and space within the cosmic sector occupies the function of time within the material sector.
Now here is where Larson's Reciprocal System gets really interesting; and if you wish to explore it further, in addition to reading everything Dewey Larson ever wrote, I suggest you also glance over a couple of more recent papers by K.V.K. Nehru, [35, 36] as well as the paper by Peret cited in footnote 34.
So what does any of this have to do with The Luminance of the Sun, the title of this Subsection? Quite a lot, really. If it is so that the direction of Cosmic evolution is not in the progression, "Oh Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me!" but is rather in the opposite direction, indicated by "Most Kind Gentlemen Find Abundant Beneficial Opportunities," then the Sun is not in the advanced process of exhausting its hydrogen fuel for the H → He fusion reaction conventionally believed to be the source of stellar energy.
Instead, like all massive bodies in the material sector (including Earth), our Sun is in the midst of the perpetual process of gravitationally sweeping up interstellar matter that falls within its gravitational influence, and is consequently growing in mass, size, and luminance — now at the stage of graduating from the status of a type G yellow star, toward that of a type F brighter, more massive, hotter star.
If so, this naturally has implications for the conditions experienced by living beings on the surface of planet Earth: in particular, the climate changes that have been gaining increasing attention among Earth-humans during recent years. More generally, these observations throw into high relief the uncertainty and the plasticity of the context in which the human understanding occurs of "how we think things really are." Actually, the context probably does not change significantly. However, our understanding of that context is subject from time to time to radical change — and corresponding resistance to change, on behalf of firmly entrenched prior beliefs.
3 A Paradigm Shift
It may not be out of place to suggest that Larson's Reciprocal System of theory may eventually be recognized as no less an advance upon the theories of Newton, Einstein, the Copenhagen quantum theorists, and even Hugh Everett III, than were the disclosures of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton upon the geocentric Ptolemaic system of cycles and epicycles that preceded and coincided with Copernicus. The Reciprocal System too has been about as graciously received in our time as were the ideas of Copernicus and Galileo in theirs.
Nevertheless, as mentioned earlier, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy;" and as long as human curiosity remains sharp, there will be nosy parkers about, like Copernicus, and Larson, poking into the details of settled orthodoxy, and upsetting exquisitely unbalanced and delicately unhinged structures of imaginary design that cannot withstand a gust of penetrating insight.
The "scientific method," as advertised, is supposed to welcome such refreshing gusts of mountain air: as opportunities for advancing beyond the frontiers of prior human understanding. What is supposed to happen, however, in science, or in any human endeavor, at least in the short term, depends to a large extent upon those who do the supposing.
Still, genuine insight into "how things are" has a way, like it or not, of sticking to the wall, and eventually replacing even the most thoroughly entrenched and longstanding misconceptions. This is so, simply because it works better; and those things that work better inexorably replace, sooner or later, those things, whether ideas, systems, designs, or anything else, that do not work as well; no matter how tenaciously the latter may be defended. This seems to be how the universe is hung together: effecting the gradual attrition and replacement of things that don't work very well, by things that work better. Larson's way of looking at "how things are" seems to work better than its predecessors: as the ideas of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton worked better than the Ptolemaic epicycles. Similarly, although not widely known today, Larson's Reciprocal Universe may eventually provide a "place to stand" for the next phase of human exploration in Cosmos.
Perhaps the most appealing quality displayed by the Reciprocal System of theory is the way in which its implications seem to fit so snugly together, each one confirming and reinforcing the foundations of others — as opposed to the frequent practice within "scientific orthodoxy" of advancing "solutions" in highly specialized domains that do not fit very well with "solutions" developed in other specialized domains. The Reciprocal System, as Larson has repeatedly emphasized, is not an isolated theory in a specialized domain. It is a comprehensively integrated system of theory applicable to all domains. This seems to be essential for gaining deep understanding of anything: because although specialists focus with penetrating insight upon narrow fields of interest, the "real universe" is an interrelated and integrated whole in which every thing is related to everything "else." The whole cannot be understood only by understanding the parts; and the parts cannot be fully understood without a comprehensive understanding of the whole. This is the direction in which the Reciprocal System seems to be pointing.
The Reciprocal System corroborates the evidence for an expanding Earth discussed above in § 2.1; supplies a source for the additional mass necessary for such expansion; and obviates the need for geological processes in the interest of maintaining the plausibility of a constant mass and size for planet Earth. As a bonus, the conspicuous absence today of land animals the size of the largest Mesozoic dinosaurs adds a positive sidelight to the theory of Expansion Tectonics. Evidence for an expanding Earth in turn corroborates the parallel process of material accretion by the stars, propelling their evolution as well in the direction of increasing, rather than diminishing mass.
The scalar progression of the material sector outward, which follows from the reciprocal relation between time and space, requiring the progression of both, makes considerably better sense (to me) than the ad hoc "Big Bang" — which seems to be seriously compromised by the necessity of having had to occur at some specific space-time intersection. That is, if there ever was such a conflagration as a "Big Bang," it must have occurred somewhere, in preference to all other places; at some time, in preference to all other times. Some locations in the material universe must therefore be nearer than others to that space-time event: and should display differences accordingly.
The expansion of a debris field in the aftermath of an explosion is vectored motion, propelled by the explosion — which is clearly distinguishable from scalar motion outward, without a vectored direction, and without an epicenter, or a "ground zero." If there was a "Big Bang," it should be possible to locate with measurable accuracy its space-time epicenter. Or at least there should be, within the part of the universe accessible to human observation, anisotropic evidence of some kind indicating the direction of the space-time epicenter of the "Big Bang," wherever, whenever it may have occurred.
For example: a violent explosion in a forest with no witnesses may easily be located later by such evidence as scorching on the sides of trees facing the explosion. In the presence of the Reciprocal System, and absent analogous indicators in the observable universe, there may remain no credible evidence for a "Big Bang" — which may now serve only as a no longer needed ad hoc explanation for Cosmic expansion.
Mentioned only briefly above, the reciprocal relationship between the material sector and the cosmic sector of the Reciprocal Universe provides a means whereby the Reciprocal Universe is perpetually able to replenish itself, as the reciprocal evolutionary processes in each sector feed those in the other. This is truly an elegant conception; and it renders moot the issue of "the birth of the universe" addressed by the "Big Bang;" and the corresponding "end of the universe" anticipated eventually by many. In the Reciprocal Universe that follows from Larson's fundamental assumptions, neither "beginning" nor "end" seem to be necessary. It appears that conditions in the imaginary Reciprocal Universe that follow from Larson's assumptions correspond one-to-one — to the extent that it has been possible to make observational and experimental comparisons between the two — with conditions in the "real universe" in which we actually live.
However, although there may be many reasons why adoption of Larson's Reciprocal Universe as a conceptual model for the "real universe" might be quite appealing, and might imaginably lead to a significant acceleration of human understanding of "how things really are;" by itself, it may not be sufficient to "pull our bacon out of the fire," as circumstances stand at present among Earth-humans.
If the "real universe" in which we actually live is in fact populated by massive bodies, such as planets, stars, and galaxies, that accumulate mass and energy during their evolutionary lives, then as indicated for instance by the magnetic striping discovered to be marking all of Earth's seabeds, Earth-humans may be in for a bit of "heavy weather," sooner or later, in our not necessarily distant future.
The magnetic map of Earth's seabeds indicates a relatively "frequent" cycle of polarity reversals of Earth's magnetic field over an extensive span of geological time. However, we "Jimmy-come-latelies" have not had a long enough presence on this planet — at least during the period in which rigorous historical records have been kept — to have recorded what such magnetic polarity reversals are actually like "on the ground." Nevertheless, as discussed earlier:
There exist among the recorded memories of human cultures around the world numerous accounts of cataclysmic events so bizarre and out of proportion with normally witnessed phenomena that they have often been summarily dismissed by contemporary scholars as fabrications of primitive and superstitious imaginations. Yet corroboration may be found among such accounts in the traditions of peoples widely dispersed around the planet; and further corroboration emerges from close examination of geological evidence.
Correlations between periodic magnetic polarity reversals and "accounts of cataclysmic events so bizarre and out of proportion with normally witnessed phenomena . . ." without sufficient corroborative evidence may be too long a stride, in extrapolating the "known" into the "unknown." However, the coincidence is suggestive, and its implications might be fleshed out — or negated — by means of further deliberate research.
These are not trivial speculations, borne of idle curiosity. As dramatized in my recent short fictional sketch, Suicide Note, contemporary humanity seem to have placed ourselves quite disadvantageously for withstanding "bizarre cataclysmic events" that might imaginably emerge locally out of our world's Cosmic context. This peril is developed factually at greater length in The Writing on the Wall #5 § 4 The End; and in The Writing on the Wall #8 § 3. Yet these gloomy forecasts of things possibly to come are not inevitabilities; and "we're not dead yet." However, they do seem to be significantly more than idle fancies, and like it or not, they have a part in the context within which each of us now lives.
On the other hand, if each of us lives in effect within an invisible sphere upon which we project a seamless "virtual reality" created almost entirely in our imaginations; and if this imaginary "virtual reality" is as close as any of us ever get to the "real reality" in which we imagine we are enclosed, then it is incumbent upon each of us to decided for ourselves what part, if any, such matters have in our lives; and what, if anything, we should "do about it." It remains so that humans ever and always believe an astonishing variety of things to be "true," and live our lives accordingly, even though a great many of these beliefs mutually and irreconcilably contradict one another. Conducting our lives in such a vast and fluid context is, shall we say, fraught with interest. Is it not?
I would like to conclude with a parting thought; which may or may not appear entirely sensible. If the context in which each of us finds ourselves — "All That Is" — may be symbolically represented as ∞, or "infinity;" and if the "real universe" in which we live and breathe may reliably be modeled by Larson's Reciprocal Universe: then each our individual relationship with "All That" is also one of reciprocity; and may be represented symbolically as ⅟∞. Now ⅟∞ may not appear to be a very significant fraction — but it is greater than zero, and that's something. It may reasonably be evaluated as "better than nothing."
However, the Reciprocal Universe does not consist only of the material sector, but also of its reciprocal, the cosmic sector. Without both, neither could exist; and this applies as well to the relationship between ∞ and ⅟∞. As is written elsewhere:
Every Blossom, every Bee,
Every Leaf on every Tree,
Every Snowflake, every Drop in every Sea,
Every Atom, every Planet, Star, and Galaxy
Is a Part, and has a Place
In the Whole that forms the Face
Of Living, Loving Divinity.
2. Particularly, in Grahn, The Writing on the Wall #3 § 3 "Virtual Reality"
wellspringpublishinggroup.com/wl/download.html#wow03; The Writing on the Wall #5 § 6 Speculations wellspringpublishinggroup.com/wl/download.html#wow05,
wellspringpublishinggroup.com/wl/wow05.html#spec06.0; and in The Writing on the Wall #6 § 2 "Virtual Reality" Revisited
3. William Manchester, The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Visions of Glory, 1874-1932, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, Toronto, 1983.
4. Ibid., p. 856.
5. Immanuel Velikovsky, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
6. See Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval, Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, 1955, for voluminous elaboration.
7. William Shakespeare, Hamlet, I, v.
8. Grahn, The Writing on the Wall #1: "Nothing Can Possibly Go Wrong, Everything is Out of Control!", 2010, 2011, pp. 6-7.
9. James Maxlow, EXPANSION TECTONICS: An Overview.
10. Ibid., p. 3.
11. Maxlow, loc. cit.
12. Maxlow, loc. cit.
13. For example, as represented in Maxlow, ibid., Fig. 2, p. 6; and at 0.tqn.com/d/geology/1/0/t/k/1/ocean-ages.png.
15. A Review by Henry A. Hoff. www.reciprocalsystem.com/nfs/review.htm
16. Dewey B. Larson, The Neglected Facts of Science.
17. Ibid., Preface, 1982. library.rstheory.org/books/nfs/preface.html
18. Ibid., Chapter 4 Speed Limits. library.rstheory.org/books/nfs/04.html www.reciprocalsystem.com/nfs/nfs04.htm
19. Larson, New Light on Space and Time, Preface, April 1965.
20. Larson, Beyond Newton: An Explanation of Gravitation, North Pacific Publishers, Portland, Oregon, 1964. library.rstheory.org/books/bn
21. In fact, aside from Larson's Reciprocal System, there is no existing theory that can account for the presence of globular clusters anywhere in the observable universe; yet globular clusters may well be the most numerous class of objects populating intergalactic space everywhere.
Pictured is M80, accompanied by the following text:
English: This stellar swarm is M80 (NGC 6093), one of the densest of the 147 known globular star clusters in the Milky Way galaxy. Located about 28,000 light-years from Earth, M80 contains hundreds of thousands of stars, all held together by their mutual gravitational attraction. Globular clusters are particularly useful for studying stellar evolution, since all of the stars in the cluster have the same age (about 15 billion years), but cover a range of stellar masses. Every star visible in this image is either more highly evolved than, or in a few rare cases more massive than, our own Sun. Especially obvious are the bright red giants, which are stars similar to the Sun in mass that are nearing the ends of their lives.
Date: 1 July 1999
Permission: This file is in the public domain because it was created by NASA and ESA. NASA Hubble material (and ESA Hubble material prior to 2009) is copyright-free and may be freely used as in the public domain without fee, on the condition that only NASA, STScI, and/or ESA is credited as the source of the material. This license does not apply if ESA material created after 2008 or source material from other organizations is in use.
The material was created for NASA by Space Telescope Science Institute under Contract NAS5-26555, or for ESA by the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre.
22. Larson, 1964, Part One The Problem, V. library.rstheory.org/books/bn/01.html
23. Larson, loc. cit.
24. Ibid., Part Two The Answer, VI. library.rstheory.org/books/bn/02.html
25. Larson, Nothing but Motion: Volume I of a revised and enlarged edition of The Structure of the Physical Universe, North Pacific Publishers, Portland, Oregon, 1959, 1965, 1979, p. 30. reciprocalsystem.org/PDFa/Nothing But Motion (Larson, Dewey).pdf
27. Larson, The Case Against the Nuclear Atom, North Pacific Publishers, P.O. Box 13255, Portland, Oregon 97213, Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 62-22268, Second Printing, October, 1963. library.rstheory.org/books/cana
28. Ibid., Chapter X Facts and Fancies, II. library.rstheory.org/books/cana/10.html
29. Larson, loc. cit.
30. Drawings by the author.
31. For a detailed discussion, see Larson, Nothing but Motion, 1959, Chapter 10 Atoms, p. 127 ff. reciprocalsystem.org/PDFa/Nothing But Motion (Larson, Dewey).pdf
32. "Impossible," because a) without an ad hoc "nuclear force" to bind them together, the protons in the nucleus of a conventional atom would violently repel each other; b) neutrons, with a half-life of about 10.3 minutes, are unstable everywhere except (again, ad hoc) within the atomic nucleus; and c) the electrons available for experimental analysis have properties different from those attributed ad hoc to the electrons said to be constituents of atoms. See Larson, The Case Against the Nuclear Atom for elaboration.
33. Larson, The Universe of Motion: Volume III
of a revised and enlarged edition of The Structure of the Physical Universe, North Pacific Publishers, P.O. Box 13255, Portland, Oregon 97213 © 1959, 1971, 1984, Ch. 4 The Giant Star Cycle. reciprocalsystem.org/PDFa/Universe of Motion (Larson, Dewey B).pdf
34. Bruce Peret, At The Earth's Core: The Geophysics of Planetary Evolution, 1998, 18 pp., 309.6 kB. reciprocalsystem.org/PDFa/At the Earth's Core--The Geophysics of Planetary Evolution (Peret, Bruce).pdf
35. K.V.K. Nehru, Ph.D., High Energy Physics and the Reciprocal System, 9 pp., 355.3 kB. reciprocalsystem.org/PDFa/High Energy Physics and the Reciprocal System (KVK, Nehru).pdf
36. K.V.K. Nehru, Ph.D., 'Non-Locality' in the Reciprocal System. library.rstheory.org/articles/KVK/NonLocality.html
37. Grahn, Suicide Note, December 19, 2012.
38. Grahn, The Writing on the Wall #5: "Don't Take Any Wooden Nickels" § 4 The End. wellspringpublishinggroup.com/wl/wow05.html#end04.0
39. Grahn, The Writing on the Wall #8: "The Emergence of 'Post-Civilization'" § 3 A "Post-Civilization" Founded Upon Love.
40. Grahn, The Writing on the Wall #5, 6/1/12, p. 23.
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